Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Since this is the opposite process of cellular respiration, plants and animals are said to have a symbiotic relationship. Cellular respiration - - Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary processes by Difference Between Words: English and Science Vocabulary. Cellular respiration occurs in light (day) as well as in the dark (night). Photosynthesis takes place in light (day) only. Reaction involved, 1.
In order to take the hydrogen it needs to build glucose molecules, the plant uses the energy from the sun to break the water molecule apart, taking electrons and hydrogen from it and releasing the oxygen into the air. The electrons it takes are put into an electron transport system, where they are used to produce energy molecules called ATP that are used to build the glucose molecule-- all made possible by the sun's energy. Thus, during photosynthesis a plant consumes water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, and produces glucose and oxygen.
The sugar glucose is important because it is necessary for cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, the chemical energy in the glucose molecule is converted into a form that the plant can use for growth and reproduction.
In the first step of respiration, called glycolysis, the glucose molecule is broken down into two smaller molecules called pyruvate, and a little energy is released in the form of ATP. This step in respiration does not require any oxygen and is therefore called anaerobic respiration. In the second step of respiration, the pyruvate molecules are rearranged and combined and rearranged again in a cycle. While the molecules are being rearranged in this cycle, carbon dioxide is produced, and electrons are pulled off and passed into an electron transport system which, just as in photosynthesis, generates a lot of ATP for the plant to use for growth and reproduction.
This last step requires oxygen, and therefore is called aerobic respiration. Thus, the final result of cellular respiration is that the plant consumes glucose and oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, water, and ATP energy molecules. At first, this doesn't seem to make any sense!
If the plant can use the energy from the sun to make ATP, why does it go through all the trouble of then using up the ATP to make glucose, just so it can get ATP again? There are two reasons why the plant does this. First, in addition to ATP, the plant needs materials to grow. Glucose is an important building block that is necessary to produce all of the proteins, DNA, cells, tissues, etc. Second, one problem with the sun is that it goes away every night, and during winter it isn't very bright.
The plant needs energy all of the time.Relationship between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
So, by producing glucose, the plant can store this molecule and then use it to produce energy during the night and over winter when there isn't enough sun to provide good photosynthesis. It is very interesting how photosynthesis and cellular respiration help each other.
During photosynthesis, the plant needs carbon dioxide and water-- both of which are released into the air during respiration. And during respiration, the plant needs oxygen and glucose, which are both produced through photosynthesis!
So in a way, the products of photosynthesis support respiration, and the products of respiration support photosynthesis, forming a cycle. While plants can complete this cycle by themselves, animals cannot, since animals aren't capable of photosynthesis! This means that animals have to survive solely through respiration. Also, since we animals can't produce glucose by ourselves, we have to get it from somewhere else-- from eating plants.
We produce carbon dioxide that the plants need, and they produce the oxygen that we need, and then we eat them to get the glucose that we need. It seems that we need the plants a lot more than they need us! Photosynthesis and respiration are complementary processes.
Let me briefly summarize what both processes do: Photosynthesis Is the chemical process where plants can capture and organically fix the energy of the sun. This chemical reaction can be described by the following simple equation: Dark reaction or Calvin cycle taking place in the stroma of the chloroplast. Photolysis or Water-spitting complex which takes place in thylakoid lumen.
Energy It is an exothermic reaction, as energy is released during this process.
- Photosynthesis vs. Cellular respiration
- Difference Between Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
- Photosynthesis and Respiration
It is an endothermic process, as energy is stored or utilised. The energy which is released is in the form of ATP is used in various metabolic activities. The energy is in the form of glucose or chemical energy, which is used during the dark reaction. The potential energy is converted into the kinetic energy. Light energy is converted into potential energy. Oxidative phosphorylation In the cellular respiration oxidative phosphorylation occurs.
It is a catabolic process. It is an anabolic process. Oxygen and carbohydrates are absorbed in the process.
What is the formula for cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
Oxygen and carbohydrates released. Carbon dioxide and water are released. Carbon dioxide and water are absorbed. Definition of Cellular Respiration In this process, the carbohydrate in the form of glucose is broken down and along with oxygen, is converted into carbon dioxide and water and thereby releasing energy as ATP or adenosine triphosphate.
This energy is used for various metabolic activities and other cellular work. Cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria and cytoplasm of the cell. Unlike photosynthesis, it works day and night. Though it is not as simple reaction as we say, it is a long process which undergoes four major steps. Glycolysis splitting or breaking of the sugar — It occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell, where one molecule of glucose C6H12O6 is broken into two molecules pyruvic acid. So here two ATP molecules are generated from the one molecule of glucose.
Transition Reaction — Pyruvic acid is sent to the mitochondria, where it get converted into Acetyl CoA and get further broken down. Even the carbon dioxide and water are released as a waste product from this reaction. In this reaction, thirty-two 32 ATP are generated for every glucose. So overall reaction is written as: However, above we discussed was about only aerobic cellular respiration, which occurs in the presence of oxygen and thus resulting in the production of thirty-eight 38 molecules of ATP from one glucose molecule.
But what about in the case when there is the shortage of oxygen like when we run or while performing any exercise. This is called anaerobic condition, where they produce only two 2 ATP molecules from one molecule of glucose from the glycolysis pathway only.
It does not undergo for further break down of the molecules, as the body demands immediate energy at that moment. Secondly, other reactions occur in the presence of oxygen, and this is the reason they are skipped. The anaerobic reaction is also called fermentation. Therefore, it is called as the catabolic process as energy is released in any form by breaking the large molecules into the smaller ones. But chemically it is an oxidation-reduction process oxidation is the removal of electrons and reduction is gaining of electrons by a molecule.
This process occurs in light sunlight only and so-called as light-energized oxidation process.
Photosynthesis vs. Cellular respiration
The photosynthesis occurs in leaves of the green plants, especially in the chloroplast which is the tiny structure present in cells of the leaves. The chloroplast contains chlorophyll a green chemical is responsible for the green colour of the leaves. Further oxygen is released into the atmosphere from the leaves, and the carbon dioxide and hydrogen are used to generate food or glucose for plants.