SOCIOLOGY AND IT‟S RELATIONS TO OTHER SCIENCES THE EXPECTATION OF SCHOOL EMPOWERMENT IN EDUCATION. Durkheim first to apply sociological theory to education; Moral values inequality and the unequal distribution of resources; Relationship between schools and. Sociology of education is the scientific analysis of the social processes and social patterns in the school system: the human relations both formal and informal.
All the social institutions would be in balance, each being adjusted to other, forming a single unified scheme. Social Origins and Orientation of Students and Teachers: Education is a social concern. It is a social process. Its objective is to develop and awaken in the child those physical, intellectual and moral states which are acquired of the individual by his society as a whole and the milieu for which he is specially destined.
It is the significant means of socialisation. The function of education is to socialise the young by imparting to them norms and values, culture and heritage, and to provide them with skills and placement. This is traditionally, the accepted role of education. In the West, for long, literacy was not considered essential for all.
It remained confined to the priests, ruling classes and to commercial class. The education imparted was literary and religious. The valuation of education was not very high. In the Indian social milieu, education has been traditionally given significant importance. Education has been given greater prominence in India than in Western or Islamic societies or in China.
Eighteenth century, witnessed the total disruption of educational system. The modern industrial society with its advance technology, division of labour, job differentiation, assumes a general standard of literacy.
It cannot carry on with handful of education and mass illiteracy. The technological advancement has necessitated the re-orientation of education.
The environmental effect of the education of child is now given special stress and attention. Douglas, in The Home and the School has specially developed this aspect of child education. Likewise, children from smaller families generally have higher educational attainment, since they are also likely to receive more parental attention than children in large families. He or she is an active agent who has to learn to interpret that environment… Consequently, when considering the effects of the home on educational attainment.
It is not enough to see this simply as the result of the occupation and education of the parents. Family insecurity, for example, is not only produced by poverty but also results when professional parents with busy lives spend little time with their children.
In USA, there does not exist a national system of education. It is not a Federal subject. It is left entirely to the care of the local administration. There, therefore, exists diversity of institutions and of standards. Even within the same State, educational standards and the quality of schools varies. The American elementary and high school education is comprehensive, and in the schools are conducted commercial, vocational and college preparatory programmes.
There are schools, which exclusively conduct college preparatory courses. In England, there are elementary schools for the working class, Grammar schools for middle class children, and public school education, for the children of the upper class.
This pattern has remained more or less unchanged, since long time.
The Relationship between Education and Society (7040 Words)
The Education Act ofdid not bring about any change in this differentiation. There is, however, effort being made to bring about the changes in the system, to develop comprehensive school system. Education in our country under the British Raj did not make much progress. Inliteracy did not cover more than 10 per cent of the population. Since independence much extension has been given to education and literacy. Efforts are afoot to extend education both at the primary and adult levels.
In the five decades since independence much advance has been made in education at secondary, college and university levels. Under the new pattern Ten plus Two system at the secondary and senior secondary levels, emphasis is now being laid on vocational and technical education.What Is Sociology?: Crash Course Sociology #1
In the traditional society, teacher was taken to symbolise the best in social values. He was accepted as a moral authority. But this position has now undergone a distinct change.
Difference Between Educational Sociology and Sociology of Education
Teacher in an educated society is not the only person who can be said to have intellectual competence and school too is not the only institution to impart education.
The normative aspect of education is not attended to. In fact it has remained neglected. The emphasis in learning is on the accumulation of knowledge or acquiring a qualification, vocational or otherwise. Equality of Educational Opportunity: The equalisation of educational opportunities is essentially linked with the notion of equality in the social system. In a social system if all the individuals are treated as equal, they get equal opportunities for advancement.
Since education is one of the most important means of upward mobility, it is through an exposure to education one can aspire to achieve higher status, position and emoluments.
But for getting education he must have equal opportunities like other members of the society. In case educational opportunities are unequally distributed, the inequalities in the social structure continue to be perpetuated, it is in this light the quality of educational opportunity has been visualised. The need for emphasising the equality of opportunity in education arise due to number of reasons. Some of these reasons are enumerated below: Education is supposed to eliminate social and economic inequality.
The relationship between education and inequality is a result of the historical particulars of the educational system. There are two factors in this 1 the available opportunities which structure individual choices and 2 the social and economic process which structure individual choices while the above factors point out that the educational system is a product of the social structure it must be remembered that it is not a one-way process because the educational system itself and the values it stands for influences individual decisions.
The major problem with respect to the equality of educational opportunity is the perpetuation of inequalities through education. It is through a system of education in which elite control is predominant that the inequalities are perpetuated. In an elite controlled system the schools practise segregation. This segregation may be on the basis of caste, colour or class etc. In South Africa schools practise segregation on the basis of colour. Equality of educational opportunity is more talked about, than really believed.
In all modern industrially advanced countries there is the total inequality of educational opportunity. Educational opportunities for a child are determined by his family, class, neighborhood consideration.
A comprehensive school system free from these considerations is the demand all over the world. There is a move to this effect in U. But the movement is comparatively weak in Britain and France. The size of the family and the parental attitude makes a lot of difference to the educational career of a child.
The educated parents give due attention to the education of the children.
The family influence determines the educational goal of the children. Inequality of educational opportunity also occurs due to the poverty of a large section of the population and the relative affluence of small minority.
The poor cannot pay the fees and their children do not find chances of continuing in schools. Children from the families that cannot provide the economic support and other perquisite, suffer badly. From this group, there is the maximum number of dropouts. Education and social status have close connection. Social class position includes income, occupation and life style. These have impact on the upbringing of the child. Under the segregated schooling that long prevailed in the United States, officially in the South and informally elsewhere, Negroes received an inferior education.
Racially segregated schools have simply been poorer schools and children in these schools are not given the same opportunity to learn to the same level as white schools. The neighborhood environment has much to do with the education of the children.
Low income families concentrate in the inner city, live in old and decaying houses. Families with similar level of income, and similar vocation live in neighborhood.
This sort of inequality is found everywhere in the West. The residential segregation is a factor that produces class structures. Neighborhood has its impact on the school, and on the peer group. The attitude of the teacher has much to do with education of the children. The very real measurable differences between middle class and lower class children in tests, as well as the differences between white and Negro children, are to be accounted for, not by innate differences in ability, but by differences of cultural exposure and bearing opportunities.
The children in rural areas studying in poorly equipped schools have to compete with the children in urban areas where there are well-equipped schools and more informative environment for getting admission to the schools for higher bearing on professional colleges. In Indian situation educational inequality due to sex is also very much visible.
They are given inferior position in the family and their education is neglected. Educational inequality is due to the system itself and also on account of conditions prevailing in society.
It is multi-sided affair and is continuing both in developed and developing societies. In many societies it finds expression in the form of public schools. Some of the societies including our own, run public schools which provide much better education than the type of education provided by State run and controlled educational institutions. The education in the former institutions being much costly as compared with the latter and admission obviously open to only few privileged.
This creates educational inequality in its own way. It is really strange that education aimed at social transformation reflects the structured inequalities in our social system. Educational institutions are in a sense closed systems since opportunities that elite has for excellent educational system is not available for the unfortunate masses. Obviously this system breeds inequality of opportunities.
In many cities there is a definite status hierarchy in primary education and to a large extend, the choice of a primary school determines career opportunities. Top priority is given to English medium schools sponsored by missionaries since they offer the best education. Next in the hierarchy are non-English medium schools run by religious organisations and charitable trusts. At the bottom of the hierarchy are the schools run by the Government. Naturally the choice of English medium schools is the forerunner for lucrative and prestigious careers for a particular segment of society.
We have at present a stratified society and a stratified pattern of schooling and they compete each other. Dual system of education has to be done away with through legislation and thereby evolve a common pattern of schooling to build a strong and unified democratic system in India. Educational privileges must reach down to the poor and particularly it should benefit members of the Scheduled Castes.
Rapid expansion of education among women is achieved although they are still at a disadvantage compared to men.
To some extent education has proved to be a source of social mobility for the depressed groups. Education is a double-edged instrument which can eliminate the effects of socio-economic inequalities but it can also introduce a new kind of inequality. Education can influence the process of social change among the weaker sections of society.
The Relationship between Education and Society ( Words)
Persistent and planned efforts by the Government and voluntary agencies will go a long way toward elimination of educational inequalities. Education as Medium of Cultural Reproduction, Indoctrination: The enduring function of education is the cultural reproduction.
It has been recognised to be its main role. It is by education that the newborn is initiated in the social ways. It transmits culture to him.
At the early stages the aim is to introduce the child to the normative order of his group. In the traditional society kinship group worked for the child to this end. In complex modern industrial society of the West, this work is undertaken by specialized agencies such as school. In traditional society, cultural reproduction may take place by oral teaching of heritage and culture; history and legend, and in a practical way by participating in the celebration of festivals.
One may at a successive stage be introduced to culture through books. Yet one may not be in a position to appreciate it. It is only after one has been initiated and motivated that one gets cultivated in the cultural ways. As indicated above it is a lifelong educational process. The movies, radio, record industry, and the television are strong instruments to impart education.
Their appeal is direct. But these are not bound to any normative standard. Their basic standard is the marketability. The cultivated morality is challenged; established values are disregarded; mockery is made of humility and decency. With the disregarding of the traditional values, the growing children find themselves like the waves in the boundless sea, and the older feel to have been left high and dry.
It throws into critical relief the whole issue of whether the culture is to be transmitted effectively within the frame work of recognized institutions or whether a disparate set of unlinked and unregulated structures and processes are to carry out competitive even contradictory cultural transmission, and whatever unanticipated consequences.
It is becoming a specialized process. Education is a process of indoctrination. It has been so and it shall remain so. A child is trained in the accepted values to fit in the social milieu. The training of child has been such down the ages. Education and the class room have been used for the perpetuation of the values, beliefs and faith in East and West alike. Pulpit throughout the Christiandom, has been the great instrument of indoctrination.
Ecclesiastical order, which for long controlled the education, had generally been fanatic. They had vested interest in perpetuating fanaticism. The French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, held that school has always been used as an ideological apparatus.
He said that the real peril was the growing power of religious orders of monks and nuns and from the character of the teaching given by them in the religious schools they were conducting. They were doing their best to make the children hostile to the Republic. InCombos, the successor of Waldeck Rousseau observed. But the role of education in India was regarded humanist. In ancient Indian schools, emphasis was laid on pure values. It is worth quoting.
Education and Social Change: Education is considered the most powerful instrument of social change. It is through education that the society can bring desirable changes and modernise itself. Various studies have revealed the role of education in bringing about social changes. The relation between education and changes in social structure has been examined in rural contexts. Holmberg and Dobyns jointly as well as separately reported the Vicos action research project. The project was a study of the role of enlightenment in social development.
The findings of this project were that education became enmeshed in wider social changes as knowledge became the means to status and effective participation. It was also found that the most modernised citizens in the community were the youngsters, who had attended school. In another study by Daniel Lerner, it was found that the key to modernisation lies in the participant society, i. The studies of Philip Foster in Ghana and Edward Shils in India have also revealed the role of education in social change.
According to Foster it was formal Western Schooling in Ghana that created a cultural environment in which innovations could take place. Shils making a study of the intellectuals in India came to conclusion that if there is to be any successful bridging in the gap between tradition and modern societies, it is the Western educated intellectual who must perform the task.
Coleman, Foster, Lipset and many others have shown that education plays a very vital role in political change. It is held that political development is largely dependent on education. It provides the skills required by modern political bureaucracies, in many emergent nations it has provided a common language, it helps to recruit elite and provides a central force in movements for independence.
It may be said that social change may be brought about by political situation, economic development, technological development etc. By whatever mans the change may be brought about; education always plays an import role in its propagation.
The political situation may lead to democratic or totalitarian form of Government.
The changes in keeping with the form of the government in the society can only be brought about through education. Even the acceptance of the form of Government by the majority will be dependent on how it is being educated.
The economic growth leads to social change. It is however, education which leads to economic growth. Though there is so much of private sector intervention in education, this study area emphasizes on the public sector involvement. Furthermore, this studies the expansion of the education field to the higher, tertiary, vocational, and adult education.
Sociology of Education views education as an attempt for betterment through effort, aspirations, and progress. Since education is one of the major concerns in any society, it is a necessary and fundamental sub-field of Sociological analysis.
What is Educational Sociology This term more or less refers to the above-described concept though there are minor differences. Educational Sociology basically deals with the application of sociological findings in the field of education and this is mostly connected with research work. Here, education is seen as a social institution with a process and there are some specific functions related to this institution of education.
Thus, Educational Sociology involves a deep examination for the field of education and this mostly benefits the people who are engaged in the field of education.
Difference Between Educational Sociology and Sociology of Education Definition Sociology of Education is the study of how public institutes and experience of people affect the field of education and its outcomes. Educational Sociology is the application of Sociological findings on education.
Theory vs Practice Sociology of Education is mostly a theoretical field. Educational Sociology includes more practical implications. Emphasis Sociology of Education: