HMW-adiponectin and leptin were significantly higher in females . male and female groups using an unpaired -test or the Mann-Whitney test. quently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) . The relation between serum adiponectin and leptin and insulin sensitivity. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat . of the distribution of analyzed parameters using the Shapiro-Wilk test.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults.
The study involved 95 volunteers BMI from Anthropometric parameters were measured: The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. Introduction Cardiovascular disease CVDlike other chronic diseases, is the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors over extended periods of time.
International Journal of Endocrinology
CVD risk factors include metabolic e. Yet these classical risk factors only partly explain high cardiovascular risk and, in order to enhance the understanding of CVD and its treatment, tooresearch focusing on traditional as well as novel risk factors is still necessary to determine the most effective means of reducing unhealthy metabolic profiles.
The discovery of the endocrine function of adipose tissue has boosted the interest in its role in CVD and resulted in the reevaluation of many preconceived notions about this tissue [ 2 ]. Adipocytes are now known to have numerous receptors responsible for their sensitivity to humoral factors, allowing interactions between adipose tissue and the endocrine, cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems [ 3 ]. The significance of the endocrine function of adipose tissue is particularly evident in diseases accompanying abdominal obesity, diseases associated with dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, activation of prothrombotic and inflammatory processes, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and impaired glucose tolerance, and therefore with type 2 diabetes T2DM and development of metabolic syndrome [ 345 ].
In addition, significant differences have been shown in recent years between subcutaneous and visceral fat, both in terms of the endocrine function and the released products [ 67 ]. The clinical significance of abdominal obesity is well known and is associated with adverse changes in lipid indicators and its relationship to increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and strokes [ 8 ].
Adipocytes secrete a variety of biologically active molecules which may influence the function and the structural integrity of the cardiovascular system, and may be involved in cardiovascular risk. Nonetheless, the observed trends indicate that these adipokines may be used as adjunctive markers of metabolic disorders being associated with cardiovascular pathologies. Their other common feature is their distribution by adipocytes, and lesser known distribution by skeletal muscles and myocardium [ 91011 ].
However, their activities and roles are quite different. ADPN increases insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation, reduces glucose synthesis and enhances glucose uptake by the liver and other tissues [ 1213 ].
LEP is mainly responsible for the regulation of food intake [ 9 ]; its higher serum levels inhibit hunger, increase energy expenditure by raising body temperature, while increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver and skeletal muscle [ 14 ]. LEP has also been shown to be involved in immunological processes, hematopoiesis and probably in pathological processes, autoimmune diseases [ 1516 ], angiogenesis, hemostasis and wound healing [ 1718 ].
It is possible that ADPN and LEP may be the risk markers for fat-induced dyslipidemia or insulin resistance, with a risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, despite a vast body of research, the role of LEP and ADPN in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases still raises a lot of controversies, for example due to discrepancies between clinical and animal research findings [ 192021 ].
A recent study has shown a negative correlation of serum adiponectin level and a positive correlation of serum leptin level with visceral fat area in adults and these correlations are more significant compared to BMI ones.
Leptin and adiponectin, among various adipocyte-derived cytokines, are thought to be involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. Additionally, the evaluation of the leptin: Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis Having demonstrated that leptin in cord blood is positively associated with insulin sensitivity in the foetus at birth, we next queried whether the relationship between leptin and insulin sensitivity is independent of other clinical parameters.
Discussion To our knowledge, so far, our present study has relatively more clinical foetal samples compared with any other study, which could indicate a more convincing result [ 1318 — 20 ].
Here we show that HMW-adiponectin is present abundantly in cord blood, and cord blood HMW-adiponectin levels were significantly higher compared with adult levels, consistent with other studies [ 919 ]. The high foetal HMW-adiponectin levels may be largely attributable to synthesis by adipocytes.
HMW-adiponectin is also produced by the placenta and various foetal tissues, such as, skeletal muscle, skin, small intestine, amniotic membrane, and placenta.
This is in contrast to its secretion by adipose tissue exclusively in adult humans [ 2122 ]. In our present study, the results indicated that HMW-adiponectin was significantly higher in females compared with males. Similar results were shown in another study [ 23 ]. A recent study focused on the gender dimorphism of adiponectin multimers demonstrated that the cord blood LMW isoform emerged as the main determinant of subcutaneous fat mass in male neonates, whereas cord blood insulin and the HMW isoform were more relevant in female neonates [ 24 ].
The differences in cord leptin concentrations between male and female neonates may be explained by differences in fat mass [ 25 ] and sex hormone levels, such as testosterone [ 26 ].
We also found that cord plasma leptin concentrations were significantly higher in female newborns than those in male newborns, which is consistent with the results of previous studies [ 121325 ]. In our present study, there was no correlation between cord blood HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal anthropometric measurements. Similarly, such relationships were also not found in other studies [ 2227 ]. It has been previously shown that being born small for gestational age SGA is an independent negative predictor of circulating adiponectin levels [ 28 ].
The inclusion of SGA infants in our study might be an explanation for the absence of the expected positive correlation between adiponectin levels and anthropometric measurements. Conversely, some studies indicated that adiponectin and leptin levels in cord blood were associated with anthropometric measurements at birth [ 12 — 14 ]. This relationship may be affected by the clinical samples and the healthy status of the pregnant women.